Choose the Ophthalmology Group for your eye exams. Healthy eye exams are more than routine. If you have new concerns about your vision, or are having your regular 2 year exam, the experienced doctors and professionals at the Ophthalmology Group will give you a comprehensive eye exam and will discuss with you your concerns and the results of your exam. Call us now at 800 EYE (393) 2000 to schedule an eye exam appointment – or fill out the form at the bottom of the page to be contacted.
An eye examination is a battery of tests performed to assess vision and the ability to focus on and discern objects, as well as other tests and examinations pertaining to the eyes. Health care professionals often recommend that all people should have periodic and thorough eye examinations as part of routine primary care, especially since many eye diseases are asypmtomatic.
Eye examinations may detect potentially treatable blinding eye diseases, ocular manifestations of systemic disease, or signs of tumors or other anomalies of the brain.
A refraction is the test that is used to determine the strength of your glasses or contact lens prescription. This portion of the exam is not covered by Medicare or most medical insurances. However, if you have a vision plan it is usually a covered benefit.
External examination of eyes consists of inspection of the eyelids, surrounding tissues and palpebral fissure. Palpation of the orbital rim may also be desirable, depending on the presenting signs and symptoms. The conjunctiva and sclera can be inspected by asking you to look up, and shining a light while retracting the upper or lower eyelid. The cornea and iris may be similarly inspected.
Visual acuity is the eye’s ability to detect fine details and is the quantitative measure of the eye’s ability to see an in-focus image at a certain distance. The standard definition of normal visual acuity (20/20 vision) is the ability to resolve a spatial pattern separated by a visual angle of one minute of arc. The term 20/20 is derived from standardized sized objects that can be seen by a “person of normal vision” at the specified distance. For example, if one can see at a distance of 20 ft an object that normally can be seen at 20 ft, then one has 20/20 vision. If one can see at 20 ft what a normal person can see at 40 ft, then one has 20/40 vision. Put another way, suppose you have trouble seeing objects at a distance and you can only see out to 20 ft what a person with normal vision can see out to 200 feet, then you have 20/200 vision. This is often measured with a Snellen chart.
An examination of pupilary function includes inspecting the pupils for equal size, regular shape, reactivity to light, and direct and consensual accommodation.
Ocular motility is tested, especially when patients complain of double vision or physicians suspect neurologic disease. First, the doctor visually assess the eyes for deviations that could result from strabismus, extraocular muscle dysfunction, or palsy of the cranial nerves innervating the extraocular muscles. Saccades are assessed by having the you move your eye quickly to a target at the far right, left, top and bottom. This tests for saccadic dysfunction where poor ability of the eyes to “jump” from one place to another may impinge on reading ability and other skills, whereby the eyes are required to fixate and follow a desired object.
Visual field (confrontation) testing
Testing the visual field consists of confrontation field testing in which each eye is tested separately to assess the extent of the peripheral field.
Intraocular pressure (IOP) can be measured by Tonometry devices designed to measure the outflow (and resistance to outflow) of the aqueous humour from the eye.
An ophthalmoscopic examination may include visually magnified inspection of the internal eye structures and also assessment of the quality of the eye’s red reflex.
Ophthalmoscopy allows your physician to look directly at the retina and other tissue at the back of the eye. This is best done after the pupil has been dilated with eye drops.
The appearance of the optic disc and retinal vasculature are the main focus of examination during ophthalmoscopy. Anomalies in the appearance of these internal ocular structures may indicate eye disease or condition.
Close inspection of the anterior eye structures and ocular adnexa are often done with a slit lamp machine. A small beam of light that can be varied in width, height, incident angle, orientation and color, is passed over the eye. Often, this light beam is narrowed into a vertical “slit”, during slit-lamp examination. The examiner views the illuminated ocular structures, through an optical system that magnifies the image of the eye.
This allows inspection of all the ocular media, from cornea to vitreous, plus magnified view of eyelids, and other external ocular related structures. Fluorescein staining before slit lamp examination may reveal corneal abrasions or herpes simplex infection.
The binocular slit-lamp examination provides stereoscopic magnified view of the eye structures in striking detail, enabling exact anatomical diagnoses to be made for a variety of eye conditions.
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The Ophthalmology Group
Paducah, KY 42001